Amid rising rates of coronavirus, new measures to control Covid-19 in England come into force on Monday. BBC News has mapped some of the areas with the highest numbers of new infections.
Government data on coronavirus infections reveals more than 27 in every 100,000 people in England tested positive in the week to 6 September.
To put that in context, it passes the government’s own threshold – 20 per 100,000 – for quarantining people coming home from abroad.
The rate of new infections varies significantly from area to area, however, with Bolton in Greater Manchester recording 160.7 cases per 100,000 residents in the week to 7 September – the highest rate in the country.
Other areas of Greater Manchester, which had been subject to tightened lockdown rules since the end of July are also seeing high rates. Tameside recorded 84.8 cases per 100,000.
The government’s neighbourhood-level data is broken down into areas with an average population of about 7,200, showing the places with three or more positive cases recorded in the week to 6 September.
For Greater Manchester, in these smaller areas over the last seven days one part of Bolton – Little Lever – saw the joint highest number of cases with 24.
Oldham saw the same number of cases in Alexandra Park, and Manchester saw 22 in one part of the city, New Islington and Miles Platting.
Birmingham, England’s second city, was not placed into a tightened lockdown a few weeks ago after a rise in cases, but was given “enhanced support” by the government.
It now has the second highest rate in England, 85.4 per 100,000 people, as of 7 September.
At the end of August and beginning of September cases surged again and on 4 September it recorded 213 cases, more than on any other day on record during the pandemic.
However, at the peak of the crisis, only key workers and people sick enough to be in hospital were being routinely tested.
Birmingham’s director of public health, Dr Justin Varney, told BBC News he was concerned by the “significant” rise, while the city council said most new infections were in the 20-39 age group with a rise across all ethnic groups.
Over the last seven days, Birmingham was home to six of the top 10 neighbourhoods with the highest number of cases in England. Springfield and Hall Green West, in the south-east of the city, had the most with 39 positive cases.
West Yorkshire was subject to the same tightened lockdown as Greater Manchester and east Lancashire. Bradford had already faced different rules to the rest of England in July, when its gyms and leisure centres were told they could not re-open at the same time as others.
Its rate of cases is one of the highest in England with 82 per 100,000 in the week to 7 September.
The Shearbridge and University area of Bradford recorded 37 cases in a week while in Leeds, where the rate has also risen steeply, there were 24 in the Lincoln Green and St James area.
In Lancashire, Darwen and Rossendale were removed from the restrictions on households meeting that were in place for other parts of the east of the county on 26 August.
Cases in Rossendale spiked, but health bosses said this was connected with a pre-school in the Whitworth area. Rossendale’s rate has since come down from 64 cases per 100,000 to 41.
The Little Harwood area of Blackburn had 18 cases in the latest week. Queensgate in Burnley had 15 as did Preston’s Frenchwood and Fishwick.
Houghton West, in Sunderland, had the highest number of positive cases – 45 – while the city overall recorded 80 cases per 100,000 residents.
Is anywhere free of Covid-19?
England is divided into 315 local authority areas. In the week to 6 September, everywhere had at least one coronavirus case.
East Cambridgeshire had one, but this was down from three the week before. West Devon recorded two, having not had a case since 10 August.
Torridge in north Devon recorded five new cases, a rate of 7.3 per 100,000, having recorded none at all the previous week. The area has the lowest overall rate of infections since the start of the pandemic, with 62 people having ever had Covid-19, 92 per 100,000.
What are the new rules for England?
Following the sharp rise in overall cases, Prime Minister Boris Johnson announced stricter measures to limit large social gatherings across England.
He said the number of people allowed to meet socially, indoors or outdoors, would be reduced from 30 to six from 14 September.
Some venues, including places of worship, restaurants and hospitality venues can host larger numbers – but groups of up to six cannot mix.
Education and work settings are also exempt, as well as individual families or support bubbles of more than six.
Team sports, weddings and funerals involving up to 30 people are also permitted.
The government has warned that opening hours for businesses – such as pubs and restaurants – could be restricted in areas with high infection rates.
How do you know if an area will go into local lockdown?
If infection rates rise in an area the government is likely to put it in one of three groups on its weekly “watchlist” – areas of “concern”, “enhanced support” or “intervention” – the highest level.
Councils in one of these categories get extra help from the government – such as enhanced testing facilities -depending on their needs.
Areas of intervention are also likely to face stricter measures around households mixing, among other restrictions.
If infection rates go down, the government can reclassify an area and restrictions are eased.
Data was taken from the government’s coronavirus dashboard and the interactive map providing case figures for middle layer super output areas (MSOAs).
Figures are as published on 10 September. Map data is based on specimens taken in the week to 6 September and returned by 8 September.